Dietary Guidelines 2005
Guidelines for Americans 2005 (various PDF files)
Issues 12 New Food Pyramids
Key Recommendations for the General Population
ADEQUATE NUTRIENTS WITHIN CALORIE NEEDS
Consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods and beverages within
and among the basic food groups while choosing foods that limit the
intake of saturated
and trans fats, cholesterol, added sugars, salt, and alcohol.
recommended intakes within energy needs by adopting a balanced
eating pattern, such as the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food
Guide or the
Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Eating Plan.
To maintain body weight in a healthy range, balance calories from
foods and beverages with calories expended.
To prevent gradual weight gain over time, make small decreases in
food and beverage calories and increase physical
Engage in regular physical activity and reduce sedentary activities
to promote health, psychological well-being, and a healthy
To reduce the risk of chronic disease in adulthood: Engage
in at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity,
usual activity, at work
or home on most days of the week.
For most people, greater health benefits can be obtained
by engaging in physical activity of more vigorous
intensity or longer duration.
To help manage body weight and prevent gradual,
unhealthy body weight gain in adulthood:
Engage in approximately 60
minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity
activity on most days of the week while
not exceeding caloric intake requirements.
To sustain weight loss in adulthood: Participate
in at least 60 to 90 minutes of
daily moderate-intensity physical
activity while not exceeding caloric
intake requirements. Some people may need to consult
with a healthcare provider before
participating in this
level of activity
Achieve physical fitness
by including cardiovascular conditioning,
stretching exercises for flexibility,
exercises or calisthenics for
muscle strength and endurance.
FOOD GROUPS TO ENCOURAGE
Consume a sufficient amount of fruits and vegetables while
staying within energy needs. Two cups of fruit and 2½ cups
of vegetables per day are recommended for a reference
2,000-calorie intake, with
higher or lower amounts
depending on the calorie level.
Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables each day. In
particular, select from all five vegetable subgroups (dark
legumes, starchy vegetables,
and other vegetables) several times a week.
Consume 3 or more ounce-equivalents of whole-grain
products per day, with the rest of the recommended
grains coming from enriched or whole-grain
products. In general, at least half the grains should come
from whole grains.
Consume 3 cups per day of fat-free or low-fat
milk or equivalent milk products.
Consume less than 10 percent of calories from saturated fatty
acids and less than 300 mg/day of cholesterol, and keep
trans fatty acid consumption
as low as possible.
Keep total fat intake between 20 to 35 percent of calories,
with most fats coming from sources of polyunsaturated and
monounsaturated fatty acids, such
as fish, nuts, and vegetable oils.
When selecting and preparing meat, poultry, dry
beans, and milk or milk products, make choices
that are lean, low-fat, or fat-free.
Limit intake of fats and oils high in saturated and/or trans
fatty acids, and choose products low in such fats and oils.
Choose fiber-rich fruits, vegetables, and whole grains often.
Choose and prepare foods and beverages with little added
sugars or caloric sweeteners, such as amounts suggested by
Food Guide and the DASH
Reduce the incidence of dental caries by
practicing good oral hygiene and consuming
sugar- and starch-containing foods
and beverages less
Consume less than 2,300 mg (approximately 1 teaspoon of salt)
of sodium per day.
Choose and prepare foods with little salt. At the same time,
consume potassium-rich foods, such as fruits and vegetables.
Those who choose to drink alcoholic beverages should do so
sensibly and in moderation—defined as the consumption
of up to one drink per day for women and up
to two drinks per day for men.
Alcoholic beverages should not be consumed by some individuals,
including those who cannot restrict their
alcohol intake, women of childbearing age who
may become pregnant, pregnant and lactating
women, children and adolescents, individuals taking
medications that can interact with alcohol,
and those with
specific medical conditions.
Alcoholic beverages should be avoided by
individuals engaging in activities that
require attention, skill, or coordination, such as
driving or operating
To avoid microbial foodborne illness:
Clean hands, food contact surfaces, and fruits and vegetables.
Meat and poultry should not be washed or rinsed.
Separate raw, cooked, and ready-to-eat foods while shopping,
preparing, or storing foods.
Cook foods to a safe temperature to kill microorganisms.
Chill (refrigerate) perishable food promptly and
defrost foods properly.
Avoid raw (unpasteurized) milk or
any products made from unpasteurized
milk, raw or partially
eggs or foods containing raw eggs,
raw or undercooked
meat and poultry, unpasteurized
juices, and raw sprouts.
Note: The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 contains additional recommendations
for specific populations.
The full document is available at www.healthierus.gov/dietaryguidelines.